Characteristics Of Acne

Acne is a prevalent disease worldwide and remains one of the most prominent diseases seen by dermatologists.

The causative factors of acne have been debated in the medical literature since the early 1900’s and remains a controversial topic.

The pathophysiological presentation of acne is seborrhea (excessive discharge of sebum from the sebaceous glands) and hyperkeratinisation (excessive development of epidermis cells) causing the obstruction of the epithelial follicles and hyperproliferation of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) (Bacteria)

P. acnes are an anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium normally present on the human skin, however, they will cause acne lesions if the dermatophysiological environment is favourable for their hyper-colonisation.

Seborrhea and hyperkeratinisation trap P. acnes in the pilosebaceous units causing inflammation, dilation, and swelling, resulting in acne lesions. The catalyst for developing these features is increased circulating androgens, insulin and insulin-like-growth factor (IGF-1) which stimulates seborrhea and hyperkeratinisation giving rise to this disorder.


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